A Guide to: General Manufacturing Standards
From fabric to thread to hems, darts and pockets – there are general manufacturing standards that need to be adhered to…FashionCapital gives you the general run down…
- Fabric must meet performance standards for end use and be approved prior to bulk production cutting.
- Handle, weight, finish and colour of the bulk fabric must be as approved and be consistent between batches.
- Any shading between batches must be agreed prior to cutting. Garment to garment shading within a batch is not acceptable, unless with written agreement.
- Shading within a garment is unacceptable.
- Fabric selvedges must be flat, not tight or loose, and equal in length from side to side.
- Fabric must not be bowed or off grain.
- Panels must be cut on true grain (straight or bias).
- Fabric flaws are not acceptable in garments, unless they are inherent in the fabric and agreed at the original development stage.
- Fabric must be free from barring, dye lines, crease lines, misprint and dirty marks.
- All reasonable precautions should be taken to prevent excessive odour from fabric finish or printing ink.
- When using unstable fabrics (knitted or with elastane content), special attention must be paid to ensure cut pieces do not exhibit residual shrinkage. This can be done by allowing adequate relaxation prior to cutting and making pattern allowances as necessary.
- Fabrics incorporating a nap or one way design must be cut with all panels with a production run in one direction.
- Nap/pile direction must be agreed at sealing stage.
CHECKS AND STRIPES
Checks and stripes should be matched as follows:
- Across centre front/back when fastened (horizontally and vertically).
- At the CB seam and centre back neckline.
- Horizontal line of check or stripe to match at all hemp points.
- Top sleeve check matching point to correspond with the check point matching on the front panel at armhole.
- Pockets to main panel, unless otherwise specified.
- Sleeves, cuffs, pockets and collar revere to be paired.
- Collars to be centralized and matched to CB neckline.
- Trousers to be laid with crease line centralized to checks and stripes.
- Checks and stripes must not run off at hem and must be parallel to straight edges.
- Stitch type must be appropriate to fabric and product type.
- Seams should extend in direct relationship to the fabric and not crack under reasonable pressure. 4 and 5 thread overlock is recommended on stretch fabrics.
- Stitches must be the correct density, balance and tension, to ensure no seam grinning or pucker.
- Seam stitching must be balanced between the needle and the bobbin loopers to ensure regular and even stitching.
- Seams must be secure with no skipped stitches.
- There must be no visible seam slippage.
- Seams must not appear stretched or distorted.
- All notches and drill marks must be securely enclosed in seams.
- Single thread chain is not acceptable.
- All visible edges of the fabric must be overlocked or neatened, as specified.
- On machines with integral trimmings (e.g. overlocks) the knives must be regularly cleaned to ensure sharpness and be properly set to ensure a neat finish.
- Seam allowance must be adequate for the seam type and end use, and also be even in depth.
- The finishing ends of all seams must be back tacked, locked into another seam or otherwise secured.
- Seams must be free from needle and feed damage.
- Seams that must maintain exact measurements must be taped as specified. Tape must be pre-shrunk and must not cause distortion.
- Topstitching must be with no joins between start and finish.
- Needle sizes and needle points must be chosen to ensure that the fabric is not damaged during the sewing. Needles should be checked regularly and replaced. It is recommended that fine ball-point needles are used for knitted fabrics to prevent needle damage.
- Needle selection should be the finest possible, compatible with the fabric thread count. The correct balance between thread count, needle size and needle plate is essential. Therefore sewing tests should be carried out prior to sample construction and bulk production, using bulk quality fabric, to ensure that fabric, thread and needles are compatible.
- It is the Manufacturer’s responsibility to ensure that no full or part needles remain in the garments.
- Threads must be colourfast and comply with all Performance Standards.
- Thread type and count must be appropriate to fabric, seam type and end use.
- Mono filament thread is not acceptable under any circumstances.
- All visible sewing throughout a garment must be the same colour and should be matching, unless otherwise specified.
The following charts give guideline recommendations for seam and thread type. However, it is important that individual fabric characteristics are taken into account when thread and seam type are specified.
- Hem finish must be appropriate to the product type and fabric.
- Hem must be level, even in depth, and lie flat without twisting, roping, stretching or pucker.
- Hem stitching should extend in relation to fabric and not crack under reasonable pressure.
- Hemlines should be level at openings, splits and vents.
- Stitch pick up and density on felling and blind stitching must be sufficient to give a secure hem without being visible on external face of the garment.
- For difficult and fine fabrics, an example of felling may be requested for approval once the machine has been set up for bulk manufacturing.
- Felling must be securely locked off with no run back of loose ends.
- Darts must be securely finished.
- Ends must be run off to fine point.
- Drill holes and marking must not be visible.
- Pairs of darts must be equal in length and balanced.
LAPELS, COLLARS, CUFFS
- Lapel, collar and cuff shapes must be to pattern and symmetrical from side to side.
- Top collar must have sufficient allowance to ensure under collar does not roll to right side.
- Back neck seam must be covered by collar.
- Cuff edge must be level at opening and forearm seam must not kick up at cuff.
- Collar revere must roll correctly to break point.
- Adequate reinforcing is required at the pocket mouth.
- Where the pocket is in seam, the stress point at the joint of the seam and pocket should be double-stitched or otherwise secured.
- Where the pocket bags are not enclosed within the garment lining, the bags must be safely stitched. They must be bound bagged out prior to insertion, or frayed, as specified.
- Pocket bearer must be sufficient depth to prevent pocket bag showing in wear.
- Pairs of pockets must be symmetrical.
- Jet and welt pocket should be tacked closed with large stitch 8 spi (stitches per inch) to within 2cm each end.
- Drill holes and markings must not be visible.
- All stress points – belt loops, pocket mouths, trouser rise seams and base of zips – must be adequately reinforced.
OPENINGS, VENTS AND SPLITS
- Openings, vents and splits must hang straight and finish level at hemline.
- Belt loops must be neatly and securely attached, and of sufficient strength to support the belt.
- The belt loops must be inserted into the waistbands at the bottom edge and bar tacked at the top edge, unless otherwise specified.
- Buttonholes must be lockstitch formation, not single thread chain stitch.
- Buttonholes must be clear of all loose threads in the centre, to ensure no snagging of the fabric.
- Knife blades must be sharp and changed regularly, to give a clean cut and to ensure no distortion of body fabric.
- The stitch density of the buttonhole must be sufficient to provide adequate edge cover.
- Gimp thread must be used on outwear products and heavy fabrications.
- The final stitch must be securely finished and neatly trimmed.
- The buttonhole must be a size appropriate to the button used.
- Unless otherwise specified, buttonholes muse be stitched through a minimum of two layers of fabric stabilized by interlining, with the exception of double faced garments.
- Position marking must not be visible on finished garments.
- Waistband/waist facing must be interlined.
- Pocket mouths/flaps must be fused.
- Waist seam on trousers with facings or shaped waistbands must be taped.
- Seams must be fully overlocked and opened.
- Inside leg seam must be joined before sewing rise seam.
- Rise seam must be joined with double row of lockstitch or 2 thread chainstitch.
- Hems must be 5cm deep, overlock neatened and felled, unless otherwise specified.
- Turn ups should be felled as necessary.
- Trousers that do not have a fly front must have concealed zip.
- Zip and guard/placket should be tacked at base of opening.
- Waistbands must be self neatened (i.e. have inside edge turned under and be sink stitched in place) or have a curtain finish.
- Trousers with waist facings must have tacked down at side and rise seams.
- Branded hanging loops must be inserted under waistband or into facing side seam.
- All working buttons must be whipped using Ascolite thread with heat sealing method.
- Trouser lining should finish 20cm up from net hem, unless otherwise specified.
- Collars, cuffs, placket and facings must be interlined as applicable to fabric and style.
- Hems must be doubled turned as specified.
- All working buttons must be whipped using Ascolite thread and heat sealed method.
- All seams should be French seamed wherever possible.
- Waistbands must be stitched using automatic waistband machine.
- Ends must be neatened by lockstitching.
- All seams must be 5 threaded using cotton thread only.
- All zips must be bar tacked at the bottom of the fly.
- Lining of pockets must be cotton only, and must be washable.
- Belt loops must be bar tacked top and bottom.
- All studs and rivets must be approved and securely applied.
- Finished wash standard of garments will depend on test report characteristics due to colourfastness of dye on cloth. To be decided at initial buying stage.
- Finished wash standard of garments for 1st fit and sealing stage is to be as close as possible to production standard.
- It is the Supplier’s responsibility to calculate shrinkage allowance and allow patterns accordingly.
- No stone or enzymes are to be left in or on the garment.
- Embroidery must be stitched prior to garment washing.
- Shoulder seams must be taped using a stretch elastic tape Franillon, unless otherwise specified.
- Bindings and elastic trims must be pre-shrunk and relaxed before applying, to prevent puckering.
- Elastics must be fully enclosed with an even tension.
- Neck openings must achieve a minimum neck stretch of 31cm without cracking.
- Cuffs and hems must be twin needle coverseamed on the round.